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          Co{(ectine StiCC Pictures:                              'By Peter Wolfenden

          A less practiced aspect of cinema and film history, is the   was spliced because of damage, the removed frame/s were
          collection of still pictures. By this I don't mean the collec~   often left in the can. These somehow with time "worked "
          tion of day~bills or advertising stills - although these are of   their way under the paper in the bottom of the can!
          great interest to many collectors, but rather the collection
          of prints  made from  single  frames  of movies.  An allied   Old Cinemas. Very  occasionally odd scraps  of film are
          field  is  the  collection  of copies  of the  old glass  theatre   found  in projection  or store  rooms  of disused  cinemas.
          advertising slides.                                  These can vary from the "National anthem" to odd short
          Collecting both involve much the same technical process,   local  advertising  films.  Occasionally  an  old  Cinesound
          ie. back-lighting the original image and photographing it   newsreel  or  Effiee  short has  been  "kept"  by an  early
          with a suitable camera.                              (sound) projectionist to be used as a ''test film"!

                        SINGLE FRAMES:                         Advertising Slides  are usually only found  in projection
          My main interest here is  in the  older,  mainly silent film   boxes or in the possession of somebody associated with the
          images and in particular the caption or title frames.  Most   local cinema These can be fascinating, colourful, and quite
          early titles were of necessity self explanatory and so they   artistic Sadly this generally not the case with current adver~
          told a story in themselves. Even the most simple caption   tising  slides  which  are  by  and  large,  flat,  single  colour
          often contained other information such as  the  production   washed, black and white photographs of existing publicity
          company's name and sometimes an identification number.   material!
          This was generally the case with Newsreels or Topicals and
          so  armed  with  these  numbers,  the  production  date  can   Lantern Slides can, however be found in antique or bric~a~
          usually be determined reasonably accurately.         bac stores. These slides fall into two broad categories:
                                                               Slides varied in size and format. Some were presented as
          Title frames  are of even greater interest because not only   multiple images or even panoramas on long glass strips as
          do they contain the above information buf they are usually   narrow as 25mm to larger 150 x 80mm wooden framed
          also very interesting in their design, sometimes including a   versions sometimes with a crude animation facility provid-
          pictorial'or graphic relating to the originating country~ Ad-  ing such images as a hat being raised or eyes moving.
          ditional details  of location  and the name  of the  film  or   Photographic lecture slides were generally all a standard
          newsreel are usually a feature of the main title.    size ofapprox. 8lmm square.

          Careful interpretation of film edge markings can also help   HOW TO COPY YOUR GREAT FINDS!
          date the film - but be careful as many early film manufac-
          turers  did  not use  edge  markings  and  frequently  copies   Both  35mm  film  and  glass  slides  can  be  back~lit and
          were made ~ often years later!                       photographed with  "close-up"  lenses etc. fitted to a stan-
                                                               dard camera. Care sb.ould be taken to ensure that the colour
          I find it of interest to copy both the last title frame and the   temperature of the light source is close to daylight, other-
          first image frame together, thereby telling an even greater   wise any colours  in the original will be altered with due
          story.  This is very effective in the case of newsreels and   consequences.
          documentaries.  The  splice  between  the  two  images  can   A  flash-light  bounced  from  a  white  surface  behind  the
          show up, particularly in the case of older/silent films, and   film/slide  will woric  well.  Another  approach  is  to  use
          this adds to the interest of the resultant combined image.   "daylight incandescent lamps or globes. I use two General
                                                               Electric 60watt B22 "daylight" lamps mounted in a housing
          HOW AND· WHERE TO FIND SINGLE FRAMES:                which is painted matt-white internally. An opening in the
                                                               front provides the aperture to illuminate the glass slide. I
          How to find them involves keeping your eyes open at likely   find  this method  of re-photographing theatre  advertising
          ]>laces. These include:-                             slides, most successful.
          Short children's films. Often these were segments from   In the case of 35mm film frames,  another approach  is to
          feature  films  and  documentaries  which  were  no  longer   make  a  contact  negative  using  "positive"  othochromatic
          required  for  cinema  circuit distribution.  The  films  were   motion picture printing film. This is achieved in much the
          sold as part of a package supplied with or for those simple   same way as,making a paper print in the darkroom. Once
          tin, hand cranked toy projectors readily available up until   the negative has been produced,  enlargements onto paper
          the mid 1950's.                                      in the normal manner, can be made.
          Leaders on older films, especially those which have been   Before any  copying is done,  it is important to clean the
          part  of "home  libraries"  for  many  years.  "Discarded"   original as  even  the  smallest  piece  of dust,  hair or oil
          lengths of film were used as leaders by early distribution   deposit will be much more obvious on a single frame than
          houses  and home  enthusiasts.  They used  the remains  of   when the same "dirty" frame was part of a motion picture
          earlier damaged,  or when sound started, unwanted silent   segment being projected at 16 or more frames a second.
          films as leaders.Look in film cans! Home enthusiasts often                    Peter Wolfenden.
          lined their 35mm, 1000 foot film cans with paper. If a film

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